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python学习笔记–数据结构

分类: python       评论: 1   阅读:1,464 views

在Python中有三种内建的数据结构——列表、元组和字典

list是处理一组有序项目的数据结构,即你可以在一个列表中存储一个 序列 的项目。假想你有一个购物列表,上面记载着你要买的东西,你就容易理解列表了。只不过在你的购物表上,可能每样东西都独自占有一行,而在Python中,你在每个项目之间用逗号分割。

列表中的项目应该包括在方括号中,这样Python就知道你是在指明一个列表。一旦你创建了一个列表,你可以添加、删除或是搜索列表中的项目。由于你可以增加或删除项目,我们说列表是 可变的 数据类型,即这种类型是可以被改变的。

列表的使用:

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#!/usr/bin/python
# Filename: using_list.py
 
# This is my shopping list
shoplist = ['apple', 'mango', 'carrot', 'banana']
 
print 'I have', len(shoplist),'items to purchase.'
 
print 'These items are:', # Notice the comma at end of the line
for item in shoplist:
    print item,
 
print '\nI also have to buy rice.'
shoplist.append('rice')
print 'My shopping list is now', shoplist
 
print 'I will sort my list now'
shoplist.sort()
print 'Sorted shopping list is', shoplist
 
print 'The first item I will buy is', shoplist[0]
olditem = shoplist[0]
del shoplist[0]
print 'I bought the', olditem
print 'My shopping list is now', shoplist
$ python using_list.py
I have 4 items to purchase.
These items are: apple mango carrot banana
I also have to buy rice.
My shopping list is now ['apple', 'mango', 'carrot', 'banana', 'rice']
I will sort my list now
Sorted shopping list is ['apple', 'banana', 'carrot', 'mango', 'rice']
The first item I will buy is apple
I bought the apple
My shopping list is now ['banana', 'carrot', 'mango', 'rice']

我们在print语句的结尾使用了一个 逗号 来消除每个print语句自动打印的换行符。这样做有点难看,不过确实简单有效。

元组:
元组和列表十分类似,只不过元组和字符串一样是 不可变的 即你不能修改元组。元组通过圆括号中用逗号分割的项目定义。元组通常用在使语句或用户定义的函数能够安全地采用一组值的时候,即被使用的元组的值不会改变。

使用元组:

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#!/usr/bin/python
# Filename: using_tuple.py
 
zoo = ('wolf', 'elephant', 'penguin')
print 'Number of animals in the zoo is', len(zoo)
 
new_zoo = ('monkey', 'dolphin', zoo)
print 'Number of animals in the new zoo is', len(new_zoo)
print 'All animals in new zoo are', new_zoo
print 'Animals brought from old zoo are', new_zoo[2]
print 'Last animal brought from old zoo is', new_zoo[2][2]
$ python using_tuple.py
Number of animals in the zoo is 3
Number of animals in the new zoo is 3
All animals in new zoo are ('monkey', 'dolphin', ('wolf', 'elephant', 'penguin'))
Animals brought from old zoo are ('wolf', 'elephant', 'penguin')
Last animal brought from old zoo is penguin

元组与打印语句:

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#!/usr/bin/python
# Filename: print_tuple.py
 
age = 22
name = 'Swaroop'
 
print '%s is %d years old' % (name, age)
print 'Why is %s playing with that python?' % name
$ python print_tuple.py
Swaroop is 22 years old
Why is Swaroop playing with that python?

字典:
字典类似于你通过联系人名字查找地址和联系人详细情况的地址簿,即,我们把键(名字)和值(详细情况)联系在一起。注意,键必须是唯一的,就像如果有两个人恰巧同名的话,你无法找到正确的信息。
注意,你只能使用不可变的对象(比如字符串)来作为字典的键,但是你可以不可变或可变的对象作为字典的值。基本说来就是,你应该只使用简单的对象作为键。
键值对在字典中以这样的方式标记:d = {key1 : value1, key2 : value2 }。注意它们的键/值对用冒号分割,而各个对用逗号分割,所有这些都包括在花括号中。
记住字典中的键/值对是没有顺序的。如果你想要一个特定的顺序,那么你应该在使用前自己对它们排序。
字典是dict类的实例/对象。

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#!/usr/bin/python
# Filename: using_dict.py
 
# 'ab' is short for 'a'ddress'b'ook
 
ab = {       'Swaroop'   : 'swaroopch@byteofpython.info',
             'Larry'     : 'larry@wall.org',
             'Matsumoto' : 'matz@ruby-lang.org',
             'Spammer'   : 'spammer@hotmail.com'
     }
 
print "Swaroop's address is %s" % ab['Swaroop']
 
# Adding a key/value pair
ab['Guido'] = 'guido@python.org'
 
# Deleting a key/value pair
del ab['Spammer']
 
print '\nThere are %d contacts in the address-book\n' % len(ab)
for name, address in ab.items():
    print 'Contact %s at %s' % (name, address)
 
if 'Guido' in ab: # OR ab.has_key('Guido')
    print "\nGuido's address is %s" % ab['Guido']
$ python using_dict.py
Swaroop's address is swaroopch@byteofpython.info

There are 4 contacts in the address-book

Contact Swaroop at swaroopch@byteofpython.info
Contact Matsumoto at matz@ruby-lang.org
Contact Larry at larry@wall.org
Contact Guido at guido@python.org

Guido's address is guido@python.org

序列:
列表、元组和字符串都是序列,但是序列是什么,它们为什么如此特别呢?序列的两个主要特点是索引操作符和切片操作符。索引操作符让我们可以从序列中抓取一个特定项目。切片操作符让我们能够获取序列的一个切片,即一部分序列。

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#!/usr/bin/python
# Filename: seq.py
 
shoplist = ['apple', 'mango', 'carrot', 'banana']
 
# Indexing or 'Subscription' operation
print 'Item 0 is', shoplist[0]
print 'Item 1 is', shoplist[1]
print 'Item 2 is', shoplist[2]
print 'Item 3 is', shoplist[3]
print 'Item -1 is', shoplist[-1]
print 'Item -2 is', shoplist[-2]
 
# Slicing on a list
print 'Item 1 to 3 is', shoplist[1:3]
print 'Item 2 to end is', shoplist[2:]
print 'Item 1 to -1 is', shoplist[1:-1]
print 'Item start to end is', shoplist[:]
 
# Slicing on a string
name = 'swaroop'
print 'characters 1 to 3 is', name[1:3]
print 'characters 2 to end is', name[2:]
print 'characters 1 to -1 is', name[1:-1]
print 'characters start to end is', name[:]
$ python seq.py
Item 0 is apple
Item 1 is mango
Item 2 is carrot
Item 3 is banana
Item -1 is banana
Item -2 is carrot
Item 1 to 3 is ['mango', 'carrot']
Item 2 to end is ['carrot', 'banana']
Item 1 to -1 is ['mango', 'carrot']
Item start to end is ['apple', 'mango', 'carrot', 'banana']
characters 1 to 3 is wa
characters 2 to end is aroop
characters 1 to -1 is waroo
characters start to end is swaroop

参考:
当你创建一个对象并给它赋一个变量的时候,这个变量仅仅 参考 那个对象,而不是表示这个对象本身!也就是说,变量名指向你计算机中存储那个对象的内存。这被称作名称到对象的绑定。

一般说来,你不需要担心这个,只是在参考上有些细微的效果需要你注意。这会通过下面这个例子加以说明。

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#!/usr/bin/python
# Filename: reference.py
 
print 'Simple Assignment'
shoplist = ['apple', 'mango', 'carrot', 'banana']
mylist = shoplist # mylist is just another name pointing to the same object!
 
del shoplist[0]
 
print 'shoplist is', shoplist
print 'mylist is', mylist
# notice that both shoplist and mylist both print the same list without
# the 'apple' confirming that they point to the same object
 
print 'Copy by making a full slice'
mylist = shoplist[:] # make a copy by doing a full slice
del mylist[0] # remove first item
 
print 'shoplist is', shoplist
print 'mylist is', mylist
# notice that now the two lists are different
(源文件:code/reference.py
$ python reference.py
Simple Assignment
shoplist is ['mango', 'carrot', 'banana']
mylist is ['mango', 'carrot', 'banana']
Copy by making a full slice
shoplist is ['mango', 'carrot', 'banana']
mylist is ['carrot', 'banana']

大多数解释已经在程序的注释中了。你需要记住的只是如果你想要复制一个列表或者类似的序列或者其他复杂的对象(不是如整数那样的简单 对象 ),那么你必须使用切片操作符来取得拷贝。如果你只是想要使用另一个变量名,两个名称都 参考 同一个对象,那么如果你不小心的话,可能会引来各种麻烦。

字符串:

我们已经在前面详细讨论了字符串。我们还需要知道什么呢?那么,你是否知道字符串也是对象,同样具有方法。这些方法可以完成包括检验一部分字符串和去除空格在内的各种工作。

你在程序中使用的字符串都是str类的对象。这个类的一些有用的方法会在下面这个例子中说明。如果要了解这些方法的完整列表,请参见help(str)。

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#!/usr/bin/python
# Filename: str_methods.py
 
name = 'Swaroop' # This is a string object
 
if name.startswith('Swa'):
    print 'Yes, the string starts with "Swa"'
 
if 'a' in name:
    print 'Yes, it contains the string "a"'
 
if name.find('war') != -1:
    print 'Yes, it contains the string "war"'
 
delimiter = '_*_'
mylist = ['Brazil', 'Russia', 'India', 'China']
print delimiter.join(mylist)
$ python str_methods.py
Yes, the string starts with "Swa"
Yes, it contains the string "a"
Yes, it contains the string "war"
Brazil_*_Russia_*_India_*_China

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03-05
2013

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